incense

Planetary Incenses in the Greco-Egyptian Magical Papyri

Submitted by drtao on Thu, 01/26/2017 - 23:41

There are seven planetary incenses (ἐπιθύματα) specified in PGM 13.15-20. The papyrus dates from the 3rd century CE but probably preserves much older information. The incenses specified are:

Saturn (Κρόνος) = styrax (στύραξ): storax, Styrax officinalis

Jupiter (Ζεύς) = malabathron (μαλάβαθρον): leaf of Cinnamomum tamala or albiflorum

Mars (Ἄρης) = kostos (κόστος): Saussurea lappa

Sol (Ἥλιος) = frankincense (λίβανος)

Venus (Ἀφροδίτη) = Indian nard (νάρδος Ἰνδικός): spikenard, Nardostachys jatamansi